Numerous finds from various eras attest to the presence of man in our territory from ancient times. Traces of a village of hutshave been found, dating from the Neolithic period. This was a settlement of considerable importance, attributed to the Apennine Civilization.The Archeoclub of Montalto has recorded as many as 26 settlements from the Roman era, 14 from the protohistoric era and 13 from the Middle Ages in the municipal territory.
A clearer historical profile is evident beginning at the early Middle Ages when Montalto acquired an identity derived from the merger of five small castles: Monte Patrizio, La Rocca, Montaltello, S. Giorgio and S. Lorenzo. Many toponyms referring to our territory are ascribed in the donation that the Lombard lord Longino di Attone made in 1039 to the Abbey of Farfa.
At early as the year 1000 Montalto was terra nullius diocesis, that is, it did not belong to any diocese,but was under the jurisdiction of the Farfensi monks settled on the Matenano.At the beginning of 1300, it became a free municipality and its representatives took part in the Parliament of Montolmofor pacification of the Ancona border area. In 1320 the community had its first Cadastre drawn up. This worthy parchment manuscript lists all the owners, properties, crops and valuation. The Cadastre is the third oldest in the Marche region anda valuable resource which enables to reconstruct the life of the time.
The tenacity and love of the citizens for their townis testified as early as 1380 when the mercenaries of Giovanni Acuto, the most famous mercenary captain of the time, who instilled fear in even much more powerfuland belligerent cities, besieged Montalto. However, the brigand did not manage to conquer the city, which resisted with an unsuspected energy so vigorous that he abandoned the task.In 1418, Montalto obtained from Martino V the right to elect independently the Podestà and other public officials.
Montalto, however, could not resist the troops of Francesco Sforza who occupied several lands of the border district and, subsequently, of Francesco Maria della Rovere, at war with Pope Leo X, who successfully invaded the territory and occupied the castle for over a year. Montalto began its journey towards historical importance in 1521 with the birth of Felice Peretti who was to become Pope Sistus V.